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  审核人:

一、文献阅读和总结

二、实验进行时

三、统计分析

四、相关分析

五、图表准备

六、结果呈现

七、发现规律

八、机理解释和讨论

九、引言部分

十、摘要

十一、创新性

十二、自我检查与完善

十三、Last but not the least


一、文献阅读和总结

1. 做实验过程中,获取所有数据之前,你是否在不停地查找、下载和阅读了足够多(100篇以上)与你负责实验(处理因素、植被类型、测定参数)直接相关的国际主流期刊文献?

2. 在你阅读的文献中,是否有与你负责实验一样或类似的实验?如果有,其主要结论是什么?

3. 阅读文献时,你是否按照清晰的逻辑思路做了文献综述(Literature Review)

4. 下载、阅读、理解和正确引用文献(经典文献、关键文献、最新文献)代表了你对相关研究领域的把握,评审专家(reviewers/referees)从文献引用可以大致判断你是否充分了解和把握相关领域的研究前沿和动态,以及你文章的科学重要性(Scientific importance)、质量(Quality)和创新性(Novelty)

Journal of Plant Ecology创办并被SCI收录后,投稿数量大幅度增加;作为主编,我告诉编辑部如何通过引用文献筛选,来决定文章是否可以送给编委处理,如果一篇文章引用了十篇左右中文文章三分之一以上十年之前的文献最近三年文献少于十篇主流期刊文献少于一半,可以直接拒稿。

实例1Were there references authored by non-Chinese and conducted in other grasslands but not Mongolian grasslands? It seems you never collect and read publications from authors and experiments in other countries! 在引用的文献中有不是中国人写的或不是在蒙古草原做的实验吗?看起来很缺乏对其他地点或其他实验在这方面研究的文章的阅读!

实例2Key reference for grazing and grassland diversity: Collins, S. L., A. K. Knapp, J. M. Briggs, J. M. Blair, and E. M. Steinauer. 1998. Modulation of diversity by grazing and mowing in native tallgrass prairie. Science 280: 745-747.

实例3:This is the only reference in the past three years in the whole Introduction Section! Have you ever download and read paper in these 3 years? When I was the Chief Editor of JPE, I would simply reject this kind of paper without sending out for review!

实例4(1)文献引用信口开河,胡编乱造(其原因之一就是我让做的wordPPT版本的文献综述不做,根本记不住你读过的文献在哪、何种植被类型、多大尺度做的,记不住文献的主要研究内容和主要结论是什么,甚至记不住关键文献的年份)(2)Have you read this paper? What the topic or main conclusions in this article? I already told you to cite the right references for each sentence! “Liu et al., 2016”: Is this paper related to global and/or regional scale and critical reference? “Wu et al., 2014”: Where is the citation in the reference? You could not be more carelessness than this! “Melillo et al., 2004”: Is this citation in 2004? “Zhang et al., 2014”: Is this study conducted in different grasslands or vegetation types? “Bae et al., 2015”:  Is this paper related to soil respiration? Is the last name of the first author “Bae” or “Bai”

8. 相同的文献引用在文章中不同的地方是否前后矛盾?

实例1Several previous field experiments in a farmland (Liu et al., 2015), an alpine meadow (Zhu et al., 2015), and a tropical forest (Cusack et al., 2010) showed that the influences of experimental warming on soil respiration did not vary among different N levels”. Comments: In the Introduction section: “Moreover, different driving forces may interact with each other to affect soil respiration (Liu et al., 2015).” ARE THERE INTERACTION OR NOT?! In the Introduction section “For example, N addition has been found to reduce the positive effect of warming on soil respiration in a tropical forest (Cusack et al., 2010).”

二、实验进行时

1. 你是否根据实验设计、关键科学问题、预期目标和测定参数/变量,经过头脑风暴(Brain Strom)构建了一份逻辑或因果关系、思路清晰的概念模型(Conceptual Model)?

2. 概念模型中是否包括了你能收集到的所有自变量和因变量?

3. 在你阅读过的文献中是否有类似或相同的概念模型或思路?

4. 你是否在实验进行时,已经将Materials and Methods部分完整地写好了?

5. 每次实验结束时,你是否及时检查了数据?

6. 当你检查数据时发现异常值,你是如何处理的?补测,用同一处理下其它几个样方均值替代?

7. 平时你是否注意维护样方并尽可能减少干扰?

三、统计分析

1. 你是否根据实验设计(full factorial, paired, nested, split experimental design)采取了正确/合适的统计分析方法(One-, two-, three- and 4-way ANOVAs, Repeated Measures of ANOVAs)

2. 如果是多年、多种植被类型的数据,是否将时间/植被类型作为一种因素包括在统计分析中?

3. 如果是多年或多种植被类型数据,是否先做整体/综合分析,然后再分年/季节/月份/植被类型进行统计分析?

实例1对三个参数的结果分析过于简单,只给出10年平均,年际变化呢?

实例2你没有呈现处理随着年际变化的详细信息,是不是有意在回避这个问题?还是你没有学到要在结果中提供详细具体信息?

4. 是否将所有可能的统计分析结果(F values, P values)整理成合适的表格?

四、相关分析

是否利用已有的所有参赛做了可能的相关分析?

1. 线性、非线性?

2. 有因果关系的因变量Y与自变量X1X2X3之间?Y vs X1X2X3

3. 有因果关系的因变量之间?NEP vs GPP and ER? Biomass, GPP, NEP vs Photosynthesis

4. 变量之间(Y vs X), 变量变化值之间(ΔY vs X, ΔY vs ΔX)

5. 空间(样点/样方)?时间(年均/季节/月份)?混合(处理年均值,样方年均值)

6. 单元线性回归,多元逐步回归,PCAStructural Function Model?

7. 是否比较了两种线性相关斜率(敏感性)差异的显著性?

8. 是否将所有相关分析结果(R2, P value)整理成一份简单明白、一目了然的表格文件?

实例1要将所有可能的相关分析做全:空间,时间,混合;因变量与自变量之间:Y vs X1,X2, X3; 有一定逻辑或因果关系的因变量之间:碳吸收GPP, 碳释放ER, 碳固持/碳汇NEP;变量及其变化值之间:Y vs X, delta Y vs X, delta Y vs delta X; 单元相关,逐步多元回归

五、图表准备

1. 做完数据分析后,是否做了符合要求的图表?作图时是否合并XY坐标轴相同panels以节省空间?

实例1重新学习PPT报告中一张关于作图时如何通过合并坐标轴来节省空间的片子。

2. 在所有能够做的图表中,是否选择了那些符合概念模型、结果清楚、充分代表处理效果的图表?

3. 这些图表之间是否具有清晰的逻辑/因果关系?

4. 体现不同变量的图表是否按照一定的逻辑/因果关系排列?先自变量后因变量

5. 这些图表数量多少是否符合目标期刊的要求?

实例1Seven to eight figures are normal for a research article. I would suggest to move the supple figures to normal figures

6. 相关分析图中是否指定每一数据点的来源?

实例1What does each data point represent?

7. 图表中各种处理的排列是否合适?首先是对照(control, C), 然后是单项处理因素(N addition, N; P addition, P),最后是两种处理因素的组合(NP)

实例1You present the treatment in correct way (C, N, P, NP) here, why did you present in another way (C, N, NP, P) in the figure?

六、结果呈现(Result Presentation)

1. 测定、计算和使用的许多参数(Parameters)或变量(Variables),在结果部分是否按照有一定因果关系的顺序(先自变量,后因变量)呈现?

实例1:将各种变量按照一定的逻辑关系排列:(1) 自变量/影响因素;(2) 因变量/响应参数;(3) 因变量与自变量相关关系(单元线性、多元逐步回归); (4) Implication相关(这一点绝大多数人没有做到,参考白文明2010. GCB16: 1306-1316;增温和增雨情形下植物根系的反应如何进一步影响碳循环)

实例2Why did you not present variables one by one? You never learned anything from my training! “Precipitation treatment had significant effect on community, forb and grass covers (P<0.01), and year had significant effect on grass cover (P<0.01), but no interactive effect (P >0.05, Table 1).”

实例3在结果表达中,首先一定是一个一个(土壤温度、土壤湿度、光合作用、NPP、土壤呼吸、cropland C uptake, Soil CO2-C release, and NBP)参数的说明,对每一个参数展现各种处理或因素的影响。 而你却在每个部分将参数和处理全部混淆在一起!Always present parameters one by one!

2. 对每一项变量是否按照清晰的逻辑循序呈现? a. 处理A的主效应,b. 处理B的主效应,c, AB的交互作用;d, A, B, A*B的效应随时间(年际和季节)变化。

3. 对每项变量,是否按照先整体(多年均值)后局部(年均值、季节、月份)的顺序呈现?(先整体后局部,先森林后树木):先是多年平均的处理效果,然后每年的处理效果。

实例1What about the 3-year mean values? You never learned “先整体/森林,后局部/树木”! Compared to the control, community cover was significantly decreased by the P-6 and P-4 treatments in each of the three years (P-6: 42.5, 42.1, and 47.3%; P-4: 26.8, 26.9, and 32.9% in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively), and community cover was significantly decreased under the P-2 treatments by 20.0 and 16.7 % in 2010 and 2012, respectively (Fig. 2a).

4. 是否给出了变量的变化值和统计显著性,以及正确的引用方式和排列顺序?

实例1Always present figures before P values and tables. 先写引用的图,然后显著性,最后是表(FigX, P < 0.01, TableX)。

实例2 Do not present the same figure or table more than twice in one paragraph. 在一段话中不要引用同一个图表超过两次。

实例4When presenting interactions, do not refer to figure! 描述交互作用是不能引用图。

5. 在结果中呈现数据时是否反复核对图表和原始数据,使之一致?

实例1写结果的文字时,一定要看清图表和数据!你有多少个地方,表中统计结果的显著性和文字表达的结果显著性不一样?这个错误我在你们的文章中无数次的发现,说明什么?

Always look at your tables and figures when writing results!

实例2写结果时不看数据和图表! Double check your data when writing results!

Always double check all the data!

实例3(1)写结果时务必看数据、图和表,一不能信口开河,二要将所有信息呈现完整。看看我在结果中的评价。写讨论和摘要时务必看结果。(2) Always look at the data, tables and figures when writing the results!

6. 对每一个图表中的信息是否充分呈现?

7. 呈现变化值是否清楚:绝对变化量(°C)和相对变化量(%, A:B ratio)

8. 交互作用是否呈现完全?语言是否合符要求?

The main effects of both warming (P<0.05) and increasing precipitation (P<0.05) were statistically significant. Warming stimulated Y by ??% whereas precipitation reduced it by ??%.

Warming and increased precipitation interacted to affect Y (P<0.01). Warming reduced Y by ??% under ambient precipitation, but increased it by ??% under increased precipitation. Increased precipitation enhanced Y by??% without warming and suppressed it by ?? % warming, respectively.

实例1Present the interactions in detail

9. 相关关系描述是否准确?

Y is correlated with X.

Y showed positive/negative dependence on/upon/relationships with X.

X explained/contributed to 54% variations of Y.

Fifty-four percent variations of Y could have been explained/accounted for by X.

There was a linear relationship of Y with X.

实例1Did I taught you how to describe relationships of dependent and independent variables? “The linear relationship of precipitation with species richness and community cover”

10. 处理描述是否准确?

Under warming, under the warming treatment; Under ambient/elevated temperature; With/without warming; In the warmed/unwarmed plots

11. 结果中是否有不合常理的数据?

实例1在数据处理之前,检查数据的异质性,认真核对数据,然后再开始处理数据,避免别人指出后再回过头来重新处理数据,浪费时间。

12. 结果中是否过多引用同一个图表?

实例1Do not always refer to the same figure or table in one paragraph!

实例2Do not present the same figure or table more than twice in one paragraph

13. 你是否使用了过多的数据?(1)实验中测定了但是与机理解释逻辑或因果关系不明显的数据? (2) 虽然用于机理解释,但是可以用来单独写文章的数据?

七、发现规律

1. 变量本身或处理效果是否随着时间、空间、植被类型等呈现增加、减少或不变的趋势?

2. 处理效果是否有与原定假设或预期不一致或相反的结果?

八、机理解释和讨论

1. 是否比较了你的结果和已发表文献的结果一致或不一致?

2. 是否解释了一致或不一致的原因?

3. 结果解释时是否选择了相关的数据进行解释?是否用了你做的相关分析或已发表文献支持?

实例1我一再强调内蒙的所有实验一定要测光合作用和NDVI,用以解释生态系统碳循环。所有人再认真读读2009ECOLOGY文章,背下来,想想如何运用光合作用和NDVI数据?两个夜间增温实验要像Ecology文章一样测定光合作用日动态和碳水化合物(淀粉和葡萄糖),检验光合作用的夜间补偿效应是否存在。

实例2(1) Did you have any evidence? Too speculative! (2) Evidence?

实例3How could you come to this conclusion? Data support?

4. 机理解释是否推论合理?

实例1:“This discrepancy could be attributed to the difference in soil temperature increment (0.69 °C in this study and 1.17 °C in Liu’s study) induced by experimental warming. Soil moisture can be reduced due to elevated evapotranspiration with increasing soil temperature, thus higher temperature may indirectly suppress microbial activities and respiration in this water limited ecosystem (Liu et al., 2009).Comments: I do not think this explanation is convincing! (1) If elevated temperature stimulates soil R, the 1.17 °C increase T could lead to enhanced rather than suppressed soil R in Liu’s study and the greater increase in soil T in Liu’s study could cause larger increase in soil R than this study. (2) If warming-induced decrease in soil M suppresses soil R, the reductions in soil M could have resulted in suppression rather than stimulation of soil R under ambient N in this study. THINK deeply and thoroughly rather than unintentionally!

5. 你的研究主要结论是什么?

6. 对相关研究领域的启示(Implications)是什么?

7. 讨论中的句子是否重复结果?

Wrong: There were significant effects of warming × increased precipitation interactions on cumulative root production, mortality.

Right: Significant effects of warming × increased precipitation interactions on cumulative root production, mortality observed in this study suggest/indicate/imply

8. 文章的主题是否清晰明确,结论是否有明确的数据或文献支持?

实例1许多地方信口开河,与主题无关的事随便提,如原文摘要提到的Restoration,在Introduction, Discussion, Conclusion等处根本没有涉及。另外,文章的主题是global change,跟Restoration 有何关系?

九、引言部分

1. 是否对已发表的相关研究进行了全面和思路清晰的总结?

2. 是否根据你的主要结果和结论发现了与前人研究发现不同的地方、关键科学问题和创新点?

3. 你所引用的文献、变量是否与你的研究直接相关?

4. 假设是否合理、明确(增加、降低)

5. 直接引用已有发现,不要过多使用作者引出发现:

实例1:“Niu et al. (2011) have documented that”, “another field study in the same region has reported that”, “A N-addition experiment in Inner Mongolia found that”, “a biodiversity experiment has demonstrated that”. Do not always use this kind of sentence!

Present the previous/common findings/knowledge directly!

6. 摘要、引言和讨论部分要根据你的结果引导评审专家和读者,你是否引入了与结果或机理解释无关的问题、现象或参数?这种无关的引入会错误引导评审专家和读者。

实例1Did you ever used litter to explain your results? If not, why did you introduce it here?

实例2: (1) This issue is not the main topic of this work! Introduce it here will distract the attention of the reviewers and readers! Delete it! You may put some space to discuss in the Discussion section!这部分内容不是这项工作的主题,在这里提起会分散审稿人和读者的注意力。需要删掉,为讨论部分的展开留一些空间。(2) You did not make conclusions on these two points in the abstract! Always focus on the main topic and make consistent in all the section! 在摘要中你并没有根据引言最后提出的问题得到相关结论!文章每一部分要关注到研究最核心的主题,并保持前后主题一致!

实例3许多地方信口开河,与主题无关的事随便提,如原文摘要提到的Restoration,在Introduction, Discussion, Conclusion等处根本没有涉及。另外,文章的主题是global change,跟Restoration 有何关系?

7. 讨论部分是否讨论了与主要结果无关的问题?

实例1Interannual variability: Did you ever present precipitation data in this work? Did you find relationships of interannual variability of plant community with year-to-year fluctuation? Did you include precipitation in the structure function model? All NOT! So why did you use a paragraph to discuss it?

十、摘要

1. 是否按照文章整体思路和框架撰写?包括几部分:重要性(importance)、关键科学问题(critical question)、方法(Methods)、主要结果(Results)、结论(Conclusion)、启示(Implications)

2. 整体框架/范围是否合理?

实例1论文整体的概念框架先从大到小,在从小到大,这同时适用于文章整体和摘要;

实例2One two sentences for the first paragraph? You did not learn the scope changing when writing a manuscript from my PPT or word file

3. 用词是否也按照这种整体框架/范围?

4.  In the last sentence, use"findings/observations" rather than "results".

5. 写摘要时,你是否不时地看结果部分,两部分是否有不一致的地方?

6. 是否呈现关键结果以节省空间?

实例1Present overall patterns rather than detailed year-to-year data given the limited space in Abstract.

实例2Abstract is always limited by number of words. Present scientifically important information only

十一、创新性

1. 文章整体思路包括引言和讨论部分,不能与已发表文章重复。

2. 即使是数据来自你自己负责的同一个实验,两篇文章的写作思路(特别是引言和讨论部分)包括句子不能重复,否则既无创新,又有抄袭嫌疑实例。

实例2: Do not copy sentence from other papers including your own

3. 研究地点、植被类型和时间长短不能构成科学问题和创新性。

实例1I have clearly said for many many times that sites never make the scientific question critical or novel!

4. 你是否大量引用的(包括你自己)发表文章的很多句子?这有抄袭嫌疑

十二、自我检查与完善

1. 缩写是否合符规范?

实例1Always use the correct abbreviation! Why did you use WUEgep referring ecosystem water use efficiency? Shuli Niu used it (WUEgep) in her paper because she also calculated community and leaf water use efficiency. As I mentioned for many times, never use CK as abbreviations for “control

实例2(1) Define all abbreviations in the Results Section and Figure Legends even though you already did in the Materials and Methods! 在结果部分出现的缩写要在结果描述或者图例中进行再次定义,即便在材料方法部分已经定义过。(2) It’s not necessarily to use abbreviation for a single word in the results unless it’s well accepted like carbon (C) and nitrogen (N)!除非是普遍接受的缩写,在结果中对于使用次数不多的单个词没有必要进行缩写!

2. 格式:字体、字号、对称、大小写、上下标、斜体,文献引用格式

3. 时态:IntroductionDiscussion部分用现在时,Materials and MethodsResults部分用过去时;suggest, indicate, implyhighlight本身和其引导的从句用现在时;主句和从句时态是否一致?

4. 句子是否完整?

5. 主谓语的单复数是否一致?

6. 是否有中文思考翻译成英文的情形存在?

7. 是否有将副词直接放在句首的情形?And, While, So, But, Additionally, Interestingly, Actually, Indeed, etc.

8. 是否用了过多的主动语态和人称代词(we, they)?

9. 是否用了含义模糊的词如while, as引导句子?

10. 是否在自己能力范围之内使语言多样化?Demonstrate/Illustrate/Find/Reveal; Increase/Elevate/Enhance/Stimulate; Decrease/Reduce/Suppress/; Suggest/Indicate /Imply/Highlight

11. 用在肯定与否定动词之后的连接词是否准确?

Positive Results: Warming stimulated growth of both trees and shrubs; Negative Results: Elevated CO2 did not affect growth of either trees or shrubs.

实例1I corrected it twiceEither wind erosion or dust deposition had no influence on HS cover in all (Incorrect) any of (correct) the 7 years.

12. 你对专业词汇的理解和使用是否正确?

实例1 “climate change factors (climate warming and atmospheric N deposition)”: I already reminded you last time and the time before last. I also talked for many times in the lab. Do you understand the difference of “global change”, “climatic change”, and “atmospheric composition change”?

13. 每一个图表单独一页,是否插入分页符而不是用连续空行分隔?

14. 是否插入连续行号?

15. 送交文章时是否包括所有要求的材料?每个图一份excel文件,包括原始数据,统计分析结果,合符要求的图;Conceptual ModelOutlineword文件;文章整体的word文件;包括所有正文图表的word文件;Supplemental Materialsword文件;三十篇最新的相关文献电子版和文献目录的word文件;指明目标期刊的Cover letter

十三、Last but not the least

1. Be devoted and focused your work!

2. Rely on yourself rather than others: It’s your paper, career and life, not others’!

3. Learn from the comments and suggestions of famous scientists

4. Address all the concerns raised one by one

5. Learn from all the mistakes and errors you have made!

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