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多因子实验平台
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科学问题

该温带典型草原位于中国北方干旱和半干旱地区,是亚欧大陆上典型的植被类型,并且此生态系统对气候变化和土地利用方式改变十分敏感(Christensen et al. , 2004; Niu et al ., 2008)。设立多因子实验的目的是为了更全面、准确的探索温带半干旱草原对多种气候变化因子(氮沉降、增加降雨和增温)及土地利用方式(割草)的响应。

实验设计

整个实验的占地面积为199 m× 265 m,共有八个一级区组,由北向南分为四行两列(如图),随机分布着割草和不割草处理,每个处理四个重复。相邻两个区组之间有5 m的间隔缓冲带。割草处理是在每年8月底进行,留茬10 cm,并且立即将收获的地上部分清出实验样地。

每个一级区组划分为444 m×28 m的二级小区,随机分布着对照、氮素添加、磷添加和氮磷添加四个处理。一级区组内的相邻二级小区之间有1 m宽的缓冲带。氮磷添加处理是在每年7月中旬分别添加尿素和过磷酸钙,添加量分别为10 g N m-2 y-15 g P2O5 m-2 y-1

在二级小区内的对照和氮素添加处理下,分别设置三个10m × 15 m的三级增雨处理,包括对照、春季增雨和夏季增雨。采用自动喷水装置,在每年5月和6月进行春季增雨处理, 7月和8月进行夏季增雨处理,每个处理下增加降雨量为120 mm,大约为年均降雨量的30%

在三个既不割草也不进行氮磷添加的对照和增雨样方中,设置增温处理。因此共有三个小区组,每个区组中四个处理:对照、增温、增雨、同时增温和增雨,每个处理两个重复,因此共有2×3个重复。增温自2005428日开始,采用悬挂在离地2.5 mMSR-2420红外加热灯(Kalglo Electronics Inc, Bethlehem , PA , USA )进行加热,不加热样地悬挂同样规格的假灯。

实验人员

牛书丽、白文明、刘卫星、张乃莉、张喆、吴明煜、杨海军、杜悦、韩红艳、黄建辉、王其兵、陈全胜、陈世萍、梁宇、刘华杰、徐长青、李凌浩、韩兴国、万师强等。

发表文章

Li, G., H. Han, Y. Du, D. Hui, J. Xia, S. Niu, X. Li, and S. Wan. 2017. Effects of warming and increased precipitation on net ecosystem productivity: A long-term manipulative experiment in a semiarid grassland. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 232:359-366.

Gao, C., Y. Kim, Y. Zheng, W. Yang, L. Chen, N. Ji, S. Wan, and L. Guo. 2016. Increased precipitation, rather than warming, exerts a strong influence on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community in a semiarid steppe ecosystem. Botany 94:459-469.

Song, B., S. Niu, and S. Wan. 2016. Precipitation regulates plant gas exchange and its long-term response to climate change in a temperate grassland. Journal of Plant Ecology 9:531-541.

Wu, T., F. Su, H. Han, Y. Du, C. Yu, and S. Wan. 2014. Responses of soil microarthropods to warming and increased precipitation in a semiarid temperate steppe. Applied Soil Ecology 84:200-207.

Chen, Y., H. Hu, H. Han, Y. Du, S. Wan, Z. Xu, and B. Chen. 2014. Abundance and community structure of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea and Bacteria in response to fertilization and mowing in a temperate steppe in Inner Mongolia. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 89:67-79.

Chen, Y., X. Zhang, J. Ye, H. Han, S. Wan, and B. Chen. 2014. Six-year fertilization modifies the biodiversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a temperate steppe in Inner Mongolia. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 69:371-381.

Zhou, X., C. Chen, Y. Wang, Z. Xu, H. Han, L. Li, and S. Wan. 2013. Warming and increased precipitation have differential effects on soil extracellular enzyme activities in a temperate grassland. Science of the Total Environment 444:552-558.

Zhang, N., W. Liu, H. Yang, X. Yu, J. L. M. Gutknecht, Z. Zhang, S. Wan, and K. Ma. 2013. Soil microbial responses to warming and increased precipitation and their implications for ecosystem C cycling. Oecologia 173:1125-1142.

Sun, X., Y. Su, Y. Zhang, M. Wu, Z. Zhang, K. Pei, L. Sun, S. Wan, and Y. Liang. 2013. Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spore communities and its relations to plants under increased temperature and precipitation in a natural grassland. Chinese Science Bulletin 58:4109-4119.

Song, B., S. Niu, Z. Zhang, H. Yang, L. Li, and S. Wan. 2012. Light and Heavy Fractions of Soil Organic Matter in Response to Climate Warming and Increased Precipitation in a Temperate Steppe. PLOS ONE 7:e33217.

Yang, H., L. Jiang, L. Li, A. Li, M. Wu, and S. Wan. 2012. Diversity-dependent stability under mowing and nutrient addition: evidence from a 7-year grassland experiment. Ecology Letters 15:619-626.

Li, Y., H. Yang, J. Xia, W. Zhang, S. Wan, and L. Li. 2011. Effects of Increased Nitrogen Deposition and Precipitation on Seed and Seedling Production of Potentilla tanacetifolia in a Temperate Steppe Ecosystem. PLOS ONE 6:e28601.

Niu, S., X. Xing, Z. Zhang, J. Xia, X. Zhou, B. Song, L. Li, and S. Wan. 2011. Water-use efficiency in response to climate change: from leaf to ecosystem in a temperate steppe. Global Change Biology 17:1073-1082.

Yang, H., Y. Li, M. Wu, Z. Zhang, L. Li, and S. Wan. 2011. Plant community responses to nitrogen addition and increased precipitation: the importance of water availability and species traits. Global Change Biology 17:2936-2944.

Yang, H., M. Wu, W. Liu, Z. H. E. Zhang, N. Zhang, and S. Wan. 2011. Community structure and composition in response to climate change in a temperate steppe. Global Change Biology 17:452-465.

Wu, M., S. Niu, and S. Wan. 2010. Contrasting effects of clipping and nutrient addition on reproductive traits of Heteropappus altaicus at the individual and population levels. Ecological Research 25:867-874.

Bai, W., S. Wan, S. Niu, W. Liu, Q. Chen, Q. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Han, and L. Li. 2010. Increased temperature and precipitation interact to affect root production, mortality, and turnover in a temperate steppe: Implications for ecosystem C cycling. Global Change Biology 16: 1306-1316.

Niu, S., M. Wu, Y. Han, J. Xia, Z. Zhang, H. Yang, and S. Wan. 2010. Nitrogen effects on net ecosystem carbon exchange in a temperate steppe. Global Change Biology 16: 144-155.

Niu, S., H. Yang, Z. Zhang, M. Wu, Q. Lu, L. Li, X. Han, S. Wan. 2009. Non-additive effects of water and nitrogen addition on ecosystem carbon exchange in a temperate steppe. Ecosystems 12: 915-926.

Liu, W., Z. Zhang, and S. Wan. 2009. Predominant role of water in regulating soil and microbial respiration and their responses to climate change in a semiarid grassland. Global Change Biology 15: 184-195.

Niu, S., M. Wu, Y. Han, J. Xia, L. Li, and S. Wan. 2008. Water-mediated responses of ecosystem C fluxes to climatic change in a temperate steppe. New Phytologist 177: 209-219

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